Health CareHealth ClinicHealth-Care-Clinic.Org
Diseases & Conditions InjuriesMedical Lab TestsDrugsHerbal Home RemediesHerbal MedicinesVitaminsFruitsVegetables

Home :: Begin Prostatic Hyperplasia

Begin Prostatic Hyperplasia

Although most men over age 50 have some prostatic enlargement, in benign prostatic hyperplasia or hypertrophy (BPH), the prostate gland enlarges sufficiently to compress the urethra and cause some overt urinary obstruction. Depending on the size of the enlarged prostate, the age and health of the patient, and the extent of obstruction, BPH is treated symptomatically or surgically.


Recent evidence suggests a link between BPH and hormonal activity. As men age, production of androgenic hormones decreases, causing an imbalance in androgen and estrogen levels and high levels of dihydrotestosterone, the main prostatic intracellular androgen. Other theoretical causes include neoplasm, arteriosclerosis, inflammation, and metabolic or nutritional disturbances.

Whatever the cause, BPH begins with changes in periurethral glandular tissue. As the prostate enlarges, it may extend into the bladder and obstruct urinary outflow by compressing or distorting the prostatic urethra. BPH may also cause a pouch to form in the bladder that retains urine when the rest of the bladder empties. This retained urine may lead to calculus formation or cystitis.

Signs and symptoms

Clinical features of BPH depend on the extent of prostatic enlargement and the lobes affected.

Urinary symptoms :- Characteristically, the condition starts with a group of symptoms known as prostatism: reduced urinary stream caliber and force, difficulty starting micturition (straining), feeling of incomplete voiding and, occasionally, urine retention. As obstruction increases, urination becomes more frequent, with nocturia, incontinence and, possibly, hematuria.

Physical examination reveals a visible midline mass (distended bladder) that represents an incompletely emptied bladder; rectal palpation discloses an enlarged prostate. The examination may also detect secondary anemia and, possibly, renal insufficiency secondary 10 obstruction.

Later effects :- As BPH worsens, complete urinary obstruction may follow infection or ingestion of decongestants, tranquilizers, alcohol, antidepressants, or anticholinergics. Possible complications include infection, renal insufficiency, hemorrhage, and shock.


Clinical features and a rectal examination are usually sufficient for a diagnosis. Other test findings help to confirm it.

  • Excretory urography may indicate urinary tract obstruction, hydronephrosis, calculi or tumors, and filling and emptying defects in the bladder.
  • Elevated blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels suggest impaired renal function.
  • Urinalysis and urine culture show hematuria, pyuria and, when the bacterial count exceeds 100,000/111, urinary tract infection.

In severe symptoms, a cystourethroscopy is definitive, but this test is performed only immediately before surgery to help determine the best procedure. It can show prostate enlargement, bladder wall changes, and a raised bladder.


Conservative therapy includes prostate massages, sitz baths, fluid restriction for bladder distention, and antimicrobials for infection. Regular ejaculation may help relieve prostatic congestion.

Urine flow rates can be improved with alpha,-adrenergic blockers, such as terazosin and prazosin. These drugs relieve bladder outlet obstruction by preventing contractions of the prostatic capsule and bladder neck. Finasteride may also reduce the size of the prostate in some patients.

Surgery is the only effective therapy to relieve acute urine retention, hydronephrosis, severe hematuria, recurrent urinary tract infections, and other intolerable symptoms.

A transurethral resection may be performed if the prostate weighs less than 2 oz (56.7 g). In this procedure, a resectoscope removes tissue with a wire loop and electric current. In high-risk patients, continuous drainage with an indwelling urinary catheter alleviates urine retention.

Alternatively, very large prostates can be removed by one of two surgical approaches:

  • suprapubic (transvesical) resection: most common and useful when prostatic enlargement remains within the bladder
  • retropubic (extra vesical) resection: allows direct visualization; potency and continence are usually maintained.

Balloon dilatation of the prostate isn't effective. Transurethral microwaves (heat therapy) are now being used in some patients. Their efficacy lies between that of the use of alpha-adrenergic blockers and surgery.

Special considerations
  • Monitor and record the patient's vital signs, intake and output, and daily weight. Watch closely for signs of post­obstructive diuresis (such as increased urine output and hypotension), which may lead to serious dehydration, lowered blood volume, shock, electrolyte loss, and anuria.
  • Administer antibiotics, as needed, for urinary tract infection, urethral instrumentation, and cystoscopy.
  • If urine retention is present, insert an indwelling urinary catheter (usually difficult in a patient with BPH). If the catheter can't be passed transurethrally, assist with suprapubic cystostomy (under local anesthetic). Watch for rapid bladder decompression.

First AidHealth BlogContact UsRss Feed
Bookmark and Share

(c) All rights reserved

Disclaimer: website is designed for educational purposes only. It is not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease. Always take the advice of professional health care for specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment. We will not be liable for any complications, or other medical accidents arising from the use of any information on this web site. Please note that medical information is constantly changing. Therefore some information may be out of date.